Phonetic Analysis

  1. Latin: “habere” [abere] Old Spanish: “auer”[aβeɾ] Spanish: “haber” [aβeɾ]

– habere [abere]

-spelling change: deletion of preliminary grapheme “h”

– degemination of /r/ (liquid alveolar voiced) to /ɾ/ (liquid/vibrante alveolar voiced) [abeɾ]

-degemination: the grapheme “u” represents the new phoneme /β/ (approximant bilabial voiced) [aβeɾ]

– spelling change: the grapheme “h” reappears as a silent preliminary character

 

  1. Latin: “plicare” [plikare] Old Spanish: “legar” [legaɾ] Spanish “llegar” [ʎeɣaɾ]

– plicare [plikare]

– lenition: deletion of preliminary /p/ (voiceless bilabial stop) [likare]

-lenition: /k/ (voiceless velar stop) yields /g/ (voiced velar stop) because it’s in an unprotected position [ligare]

-evolution of stressed vowel Classical Latin short /i/ (high front) to Vulgar Latin /e/ (mid high front) [legare]

– loss of wordfinal unstressed vowel /e/ (mid high front) [legar]

– degemination of /r/ (liquid alveolar voiced) to /ɾ/ (liquid/vibrante alveolar voiced) [legaɾ]

– evolution of /l/ (voiced alveolar liquid) to /ʎ/ (palatal lateral voiced) represented by the grapheme “ll” [ʎegaɾ]

-lenition: /g/ (voiced velar stop) yields /ɣ/ (voiced velar espirante) represented by the grapheme “g” because it’s in an unprotected position [ʎeɣaɾ]

 

  1. Latin: “voster” [wɔster] Old Spanish: “uuestro” [uwestɾo] Spanish: “vuestro” [bwestɾo]

-voster [wɔster]

– diphthongization: stressed vowel /ɔ/ (low mid back rounded) to /we/ “ue” [wester]

– degemination: the grapheme “u” is used to represent the phoneme /b/ (voiced bilabial stop) merging with the phoneme /w/ (voiced bilabial glide) [uwester]

– loss of wordfinal vowel unstressed /e/ (mid high front) [uwestr]

– epenthesis of final /o/ (high mid back) to resolve final liquid [uwestro]

– degemination of /r/ (liquid alveolar voiced) to /ɾ/ (liquid/vibrante alveolar voiced) [uwestɾo]

-gemination: /u/ (high back) to /b/ (voiced bilabial stop) represented by grapheme “v” [bwestɾo]

 

  1. Latin: “inflare” [inflare] Old Spanish: “yncar” [inkaɾ] Spanish: “hinchar” [intʃaɾ]

– inflare [inflare]

– lenition: deletion of /f/ (voiceless labio-dental fricative) [inlare]

-evolution of /l/ (liquid alveolar voiced) from cluster /fl/ to /k/ (voiceless velar stop) in an irregular sporadic change [inkare]

– loss of wordfinal unstressed /e/ (mid high front) [inkar]

– degemination: /r/ (liquid alveolar voiced) to softer/ɾ/ (liquid/vibrante alveolar voiced) [iɲkaɾ]

– spelling change: the grapheme of the stressed syllable /in/ “i” becomes represented by “y”

– evolution of /k/ (voiceless velar stop) to/tʃ/ (voiceless alveo-palatal affricate) [iɲtʃaɾ]

– spelling change: the grapheme “y” of the stressed syllable is represented as “i” following silent “h”

 

  1. Latin “vermiculus” [wermikulus] Old Spanish: “uermeios” [weɾmeʒos] Spanish: “bermejos” [beɾmexos]

– vermiculus” [wermikulus]

– evolution of Classical Latin stressed short /i/ (high front) to Vulgar Latin /e/ (high mid front), and remains the same in its evolution into Spanish [wermekulus]

-syncope: deletion of unstressed vowel /u/ (high back rounded), which yields the palatal cluster /k’l/ [wermeklus]

-evolution of Classical Latin short /u/ (high back) to Vulgar Latin /o/ (high mid back rounded) [wermelos]

-degemination: /r/ (liquid alveolar voiced) to softer/ɾ/ (liquid/vibrante alveolar voiced) [weɾmeklos]

-evolution of /k’l/ cluster into /ʒ/ (voiced alveo-palatal fricative) in Old Spanish represented by the grapheme “i” [weɾmeʒos]

-evolution of /ʒ/ (voiced alveo-palatal fricative) into /x/ (voiceless velar fricative) [weɾmexos]

-evolution of /w/ (voiced bilabial glide), represented by “u” yields /b/ (voiced bilabial stop) [beɾmexos]

 

  1. Latin: “comparare” [komparare] Old Spanish: “conprar” [konpɾaɾ] Spanish: “comprar” [kompɾaɾ]

-comparare [komparare]

-dissimilation: /m/ (nasal bilabial voiced) in coda position becomes /n/ (nasal alveolar voiced) in place of articulation [konparare]

-syncope: deletion of unstressed /a/ (low front) [konprare]

– loss of wordfinal unstressed /e/ (mid high front) [konprar]

– lenition/degemination: /r/ (liquid alveolar voiced) to softer/ɾ/ (liquid/vibrante alveolar voiced) [konpɾaɾ]

-stressed vowel /o/ (mid high back rounded) in stressed syllable /kom/ remains unchanged

– assimilation of /n/ (nasal alveolar voiced) to /m/ (nasal bilabial voiced) to the place of articulation of /p/ (voiceless bilabial stop) [kompɾaɾ]

 

  1. Latin: “clavus” [klawus] Old Spanish: “clauos” [klawos] Spanish: “clavos”[klaβos]

– clavus [klawus]

– evolution of Vulgar Latin unstressed word final long /u/ (high back) to /o/ (high mid back) ”[klawos]

-the stressed vowel /a/ (font low) in the stressed syllable /kla/ remains the same in the evolution from Classical Latin to Modern Spanish

-spelling change: the grapheme “u” represents the new phoneme /β/ (approximant bilabial voiced) in Old Spanish

– spelling change: the grapheme “v” represents the phoneme /β/ (approximant bilabial voiced) in Modern Spanish [klaβos]

 

  1. Latin: “nec” [nek] Old Spanish: “nin” [nin] Spanish: “ni” [ni]

– nec [nek]

– evolution of stressed short /e/ (high mid front) in Vulgar Latin to /i/ (high front rounded) in Old Spanish, which is an exception [nik]

-lenition of a nasal consonant from /k/ (voiceless velar stop) [ni]

– Addition of wordfinal /n/ (nasal alveolar voiced), which happens throughout the romance languages, for example in French with “non” [nin]

-lenition of consonant /n/ (nasal alveolar voiced) in final coda position [ni]

 

  1. Latin: “fabulare” [fabulare] Old Spanish: “flablar” [flablaɾ] Spanish: “hablar” [ablaɾ]

-fabulare [fabulare]

– epenthesis: /l/ (liquid alveolar voiced) added [flabulare]

– syncope: deletion of unstressed vowel /u/ (high back) [flablare]

-syncope: deletion of final /e/ (high mid front) [flablar]

– degemination: /r/ (liquid alveolar voiced) to softer/ɾ/ (liquid/vibrante alveolar voiced) [flablaɾ]

– evolution of Old Spanish/#f/ to /#h/ to Modern Spanish “zero” (unpronounced) represented by the grapheme “h”

– stressed vowel /a/ (low front) from the stressed syllable /fa/>/fla/>/a/ remains unchanged in the evolution of Spanish

– lenition: deletion of /l/ (liquid alveolar voiced) to resolve liquid cluster [ablaɾ]

 

  1. Latin: “intrare”[intrare] Old Spanish: “entrar” [entɾaɾ] Spanish: “entrar” [entɾaɾ]

– intrare [intrare]

– evolution of Classical Latin stressed short /i/ (high front rounded) to Vulgar Latin /e/ (high mid front rounded) [entrare]

– loss of wordfinal /e/ (high mid front) [entrar]

– degemination: /r/ (liquid alveolar voiced) to softer/ɾ/ (liquid/vibrante alveolar voiced) [entɾaɾ]

 

  1. Latin: “superculano” [superkulano] Old Spanish: “sobeiano” [soβeʒano] Spanish: “sobejano” [soβexano]

– superculano [superkulano]

-evolution of Classical Latin short /u/ (high back rounded) to Vulgar Latin /o/ (high mid back rounded) [soperkulano]

-syncope: deletion of unstressed vowel /u/ (high back rounded), which yields the palatal cluster /k’l/ [soperklano]

-lenition: deletion of /r/ (liquid alveolar voiced) [sopeklano]

-lenition: /p/ (voiceless bilabial stop) yields /β/ (voiced labial espirante) represented by the grapheme “b” [soβeklano]

-evolution of /k’l/ cluster into /ʒ/ (voiced alveo-palatal fricative) in Old Spanish represented by the grapheme “i” [soβeʒano]

– stressed vowel /a/ (low front) from the stressed syllable /fa/>/fla/>/a/ remains unchanged in the evolution of Spanish

-evolution of /ʒ/ (voiced alveo-palatal fricative) into /x/ (voiceless velar fricative) in Modern Spanish [soβexano]

 

  1. Latin: “consilium/consilio” [konsiljum/ konsiljo] Old Spanish: “consego” [konseʒo] Spanish: “consejo”[konsexo]

– consilium/consilio [konsiljum/ konsiljo]

– evolution of Classical Latin stressed short /i/ (high front) to Vulgar Latin/e/ (high mid front) [konseljo]

– /l+j/ cluster evolves to /ʒ/ (alveo-palatal fricative voiced) in Old Spanish represented by the grapheme “g” [konseʒo]

– evolution of /ʒ/ (alveo-palatal fricative voiced) to /x/ (velar fricative voiced) in Modern Spanish represented by the grapheme “j” [konsexo]

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